Self Image

Body Image ~ Body Schema

“It is thought that an individual’s body schema is used to represent both one’s own body and the bodies of others. Mirror neurons are thought to play a role in the INTERPERSONAL characteristics of body schema. INTERPERSONAL projection of one’s body schema plays an important role in successfully imitating motions such as hand gestures, especially while maintaining the handedness and location of the gesture, but not necessarily copying the exact motion itself” (emphasis added)

IMAGES  difference between body image and body schema

A body image consists of perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs concerning one’s body. In contrast, body schema consists of sensory-motor capacities that control movement and posture

Body schema is a concept used in several disciplines, including psychologyneurosciencephilosophysports medicine, and robotics. The neurologist Sir Henry Head originally defined it as a postural model of the body that actively organizes and modifies ‘the impressions produced by incoming sensory impulses in such a way that the final sensation of body position, or of locality, rises into consciousness charged with a relation to something that has happened before’.[1] As a postural model that keeps track of limb position, it plays an important role in control of action. It involves aspects of both central (brain processes) and peripheral (sensoryproprioceptive) systems. Thus, a body schema can be considered the collection of processes that registers the posture of one’s body parts in space. The schema is updated during body movement. This is typically a non-conscious process, and is used primarily for spatial organization of action. It is therefore a pragmatic representation of the body’s spatial properties, which includes the length of limbs and limb segments, their arrangement, the configuration of the segments in space, and the shape of the body surface.[2][3][4][5] Body schema also plays an important role in the integration and use of tools by humans.[6][7][8][9]

A clear differentiation of body schema from body image has developed gradually.

Historically, body schema and body image were generally lumped together, used interchangeably, or ill-defined. In science and elsewhere, the two terms are still commonly misattributed or confused. Efforts have been made to distinguish the two and define them in clear and differentiable ways.[25] A body image consists of perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs concerning one’s body. In contrast, body schema consists of sensory-motor capacities that control movement and posture.
Body image may involve a person’s conscious perception of his or her own physical appearance. It is how individuals see themselves when

The Concept of ‘Body Schema’ in Merleau-Ponty’s Account of Embodied Subjectivity


The Concept of ‘Body Schema’ in Merleau-Ponty’s Account of Embodied Subjectivity


Jan Halák

In Bernard Andrieu, Jim Parry, Alessandro Porrovecchio & Olivier Sirost (eds.), Body Ecology and Emersive Leisure. Londýn, Velká Británie: Routledge. pp. 37-50 (2018)

According to MerleauPonty, the body schema is a practical diagram of our relationships to the world, an action-based norm with reference to which things make sense.

In his 1953 lectures at the College de France, Merleau-Ponty dedicated much effort to further developing his idea of embodied subject and interpreted fresh sources that he did not use in Phenomenology of Perception. Notably, he studied more in depth the neurological notion of “body schema”. According to Merleau-Ponty, the body schema is a practical diagram of our relationships to the world, an action-based norm with reference to which things make sense. Merleau-Ponty more precisely tried to describe the fundamentally dynamic unity of the body, i.e. the fact there are various possibilities how the practical “diagram” of body schema could be de-differentiated (in pathology) or further refined (via cognitive and cultural superstructures, symbolic systems). This chapter summarises Merleau-Ponty’s interpretation of the notion, while contrasting it to the more traditional understanding of the body in phenomenology and recent philosophical texts dealing with body schema.

Yacine Haffar

The Subject-Object “problem” reframed by Gene.

I’d say that for Gendlin the The Subject/Object distinction isn’t the crux of the matter (so it’s not really a big problem and we can move beyond it and more importantly also speak from that “beyond”).

Gendlin shows here that INTERACTION and EXPERIENCING comes long before and are MORE IMPORTANT and more MEANINGFULL than what can merely be perceived and that we would gain a lot in focusing on (paying attention to) that felt experiencing as what really matters rather than thinking in terms of subject/object dichotomy.

The interaction and experiencing are FULL and THICK and a much more interesting source of MEANING than the subject or the object, which are DERIVED from the interaction/experiencing (for Gendlin interaction is FIRST, in all the sense of that word)

To illustrate these points please find an extract from Language Beyond Postmodernism: Saying and Thinking in Gendlin Philosophy (editor: David Levin) :

“We can recall that Husserl, Wittgenstein, and Heidegger rejected the “spectator view.” They thought they could do this because they were speaking from a place that is not a perspective, not an observation or view.

Wittgenstein spoke from what we do and say in our situations. This is not a perspective. But he said he could only “show” it, much as Heidegger said that one can only “point” beyond the schemes in the language. But where they stood so as to be able to do this has been lost.

To reestablish where they spoke from, we must go further

It is not just the conflicting (subjective or objective) perspectives we must question, but perspectives as such.

Perspectives (and views) come from perception. I think we have to recognize that the subject/object approach comes from perception.

***Philosophy must not begin with perception.*** !!!


Any starting point (in philosophy) is questioned today, but perception as the traditional starting point of philosophy has great implicit effects which still remain with us.

It is an old but false assumption that experience begins with perception.

Perception is never first, and never alone. It is not the main way we are in our situations. Perception divides your perception of me from mine of you. But interaction is more than two perceptions.

And interaction is not inherently divided. Between two people there is one interaction.

We will move beyond the subject/object distinction if webecome able to speak from how we interact bodily in our situations. Let me show that this is a bodily interaction, and not primarily perception.

Even the simplest situation (experience… ) cannot be reduced to colors, sounds, and smells. People and things exist in terms of living and interacting.

We are observable, yes, but we don’t begin as observations. We are never just things lying around, over there, waiting to be observed. Nor do we live just as observers. Our interactions involve long stories that do not consist chiefly of externalities that can be photographed.

Speaking is interaction; it is a change in a situation. It changes how the story will ensue.

We speak from being here … , from being bodily in our situations, not from something presented before someone, whether in our own perspective or the ideal observer’s. Both perspectives are with us, but we are always also here in that way in which “we” and “bodily” and “are” and “here” say more….


Now I will add that we do not only sense the physical, Euclidian space; we sense our situation there. We sense what might happen to us from there, and what we will and won’t do there.

In the apartment behind the wall in back of me are people whom I could now disturb, but I won’t, because… Of course I sense my situation also in front and all around me. It is much more than the space and the things around me. A situation is not a view of things over there. My (….) is my bodily sense of living (planning, feeling, being about to act… ) in my situation.”

body image and body schema a conceptual clarification

body image and body schema  in a deafferented subject

gallagher body image and body schema

difference between body image and body schema

body image and body schema

With appreciation to Rachel for sending this reference:
The Brain’s Sense of Movement
Alain Berthoz
Translated by Giselle Weiss
Series: Perspectives in Cognitive Neuroscience
Copyright Date: 2000
Published by: Harvard University Press

July 2023 Discussion

Kinestethic and kinetic inteligence

Ataxia, Dizziness, Vertigo

Click one of the topics above

Discussion Topics July 2021

“Improving the Entire Personality” by Al Wadlegh GCFP

I came across this quote when I was doing my morning Awareness Through Movement lesson the other day. It really resonated with me, so I wanted to share it.

Feel free to copy and share the image above.
What does Dr. Feldenkrais mean by “The majority bends those parts that they think will bend very well …? I believe he is saying that we tend to default to our most comfortable or most-used habits when we find ourselves in a challenging situation. Or that we put more of our conscious intention and effort into those parts to prove ourselves in some way when faced with something difficult.
Then he goes on to talk about “improving the entire personality.” Here I believe he is saying that to improve ourselves, we need to develop and use those parts of ourselves that not a part of our self-image. Or another way to say it is, we need to bring those parts of ourselves, of which we are not fully conscious into our consciousness so we can work with them and integrate them into our self as a whole.
Or another way to say it is, we need to bring those parts of ourselves, of which we are not fully conscious into our consciousness so we can work with them and integrate them into our self as a whole.
And by this means we improve our personality — we become more complete, more whole, and more fully present.
All Feldenkrais lessons do this. Each in a different way to work with a distinct aspect of the self and self-image. Click here for Feldenkrais exercises.
Yesim on listening and self-image ~ 
I consider two listening processes.
July 24, 2021

The first one comes from ONE ear to the other and goes out. 

The other comes from TWO ears, goes to eyes, goes to the nose, goes to the throat, goes to the heart, and listening from all my sensory apparatus. Then I can listen while I am sensing the quality of ..?.., the quality of the emotions with empathy. Then listening really comes to the stage as some kind of material maybe. It is a living thing.
We are all living bodies and living life, so living life. From this point of view, listening is being in life. Listening is actually experiencing, but sometimes it is not. 

If I pay attention to listening I think I really listened to you today. I think listening is not just about the sound because I can feel that sound in your eyes. 

So what I feel, when some people speak, is just a concern for,  as Moshé says, the safety… and also ..?., safety in the environment, safety in the nervous system. If you do not feel safe then nothing works in connection. Actually, the functions in the body, the anatomical muscles and fascia – and emotions, which are actually related to the muscles and fascia – and my being perhaps in my GROUNDEDNESS, as a whole if I am not in a safe place emotionally, physically, or mentally, they are all connected to each other so maybe today I can say in the first place while I am listening to you I am actually listening to myself rather than paying attention to you. 

I also come across with myself, maybe pre-consciously.  So LISTENING is making a CONNECTION with my OWN self, my own senses, because while I listen to you I can sense my anxiety ACCORDING to your CONTEXT, or your sound, or your face or your body. I can feel, sense, listen to myself, and can feel happiness or whatever.

For actors onstage, when two people are acting as, let us say, Ophelia and Hamlet if they do not listen to each other on stage, do not feel or are not aware of the inner connection to ..?..  

It is wonderful.  Today I discovered listening to you is ACTUALLY LISTENING to myself, on STAGE, on the PHONE, or on Zoom.  Sometimes listening is not just making sense of the words …?…  need words to speak or to listen. 

Self-image also deals with listening, but the SCHEMA as the HABITS, also listens to my self-image and also deals with how I listen to you, because if my habit is, say, to ‘she does not like me, I feel ridiculous when I look at her’ then my mental habit puts stress on my self-image and then it expresses myself in listening and talking.
(emphasis added)  July 24, 2021

George Herbert Mead. “Organism, Community and Environment” and Eugene T. Gendlin  A Process Model (1997) ~ relating to our discussion July 24, 2021


Of course the process involves a great deal more than the missing part which has now returned. The process which resumes is much more complex than one could guess just from the object. Yet when this object occurs, the whole complex process which was stopped, resumes.

“The animal recognizes the object”, says the spectator. It responds appropriately to the object.

We can now derive the old statement of G.H. Mead: “the environment is a function of the organism”. This is not so in every respect. The body and the en have their own reality connections, and this leads to a new sense of our term “en#2” in which we can speak of it separately.–– A Process Model (1997) page 13  CHAPTER I: BODY-ENVIRONMENT (B-EN) Eugene T. Gendlin University of Chicago

Empathy is often talked about as if I naturally somehow know what my own body looks like when I feel a certain way. Then, when I see someone else looking that way, I assume that they feel as I do, when I look that way. This view fails to wonder how I can know what my body looks like, considering that I rarely see my own body from the outside. Since G.H. Mead, many others have also reversed this order. First others respond to how I look, and only thereby does my body feeling come to imply a look.

Empathy comes first, that is to say: first there is a bodily shift made by how another body looks. My body thereby comes to imply another’s looks, and only then does my body imply its own looks  A Process Model (1997) page 127. c) Representation CHAPTER VII: CULTURE, SYMBOL AND LANGUAGE CHAPTER VII-A: SYMBOLIC PROCESS (p. 122 –158) Eugene T. Gendlin University of Chicago

The gesture sequence forms between individual and object. The individual is carried forward thereby, and the others also. They are carried forward by the gestures themselves, not the whole bodylook, and they are carried forward by just watching, not by having their own body effect make a rendition on the other body in turn.

Something quite fundamental happens at the second step (in seen-formation). (In Section VII-B.e) the exact way seens form will become clear.) Patterns carry forward, that are only part of the body, and they carry forward not between two bodies but between body and pattern. Since bodylook as a whole is already a pattern, let me call these new ones “patterns themselves.”

It is therefore true, as G.H. Mead said, that our lone-carrying-forward develops in a prior context of interactional carrying-forward (of response to each other), but there is a third type of carrying-forward with each other, which is different and develops only after lone carrying-forward.34

I do not call these patterns as such because “such” means third universals. Also, it is not clear at what stage of the development of seens, the FLIP occurs.  A Process Model (1997) page 170 CHAPTER VII: CULTURE, SYMBOL AND LANGUAGE  CHAPTER VII-B: PROTOLANGUAGE (p.163-215)


A George H. Mead source page

Originally published as:

George Herbert Mead. “Organism, Community and Environment”, Section 32 in Mind Self and Society from the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist (Edited by Charles W. Morris). Chicago: University of Chicago (1934): 245-252 .

Mind Self and Society

Section 32  Organism, Community and Environment

Table of Contents

“RESPECTING the DIFFERENCE ” Nada Lou July 24, 2021   (emphasis added)



TAE – Thinking at the Edge – with subtitles

‘This video is about TAE – Thinking at the Edge introduction by Mary Hendricks Gendlin and Gene Gendlin’


TAE TRAIL ** with Nada Lou

‘Thinking at the Edge, (TAE) is a practice related to Focusing created by Dr. Gendlin. TAE is a way to think and speak about our world and ourselves by generating new language and concepts that emerge directly from experience. This DVD is following a teaching trail of one TAE teacher – Nada Lou. She traveled around the world to bring this practice to many people. Many beautiful scenes from around the globe are shown in film and photos and music accompanied by Goran Petrovic makes it an enjoyable viewing.’



MARCO” Gendlin says there, that to understand other points of view, that we don’t share, is a very important thing.
No matter how much we could be in disagree with another person, her resonance is important to us, because it is the complex felt significance of another human being.
NADA LOU “His sense of the “importance of the FUNCTION of the argument.” – you’ll find that on one of his Trails as well.

And in Focusing itself – in “listener’s shoes”. Listener does not need to “AGREE” with what Focuser is experiencing, but needs to reflect what was heard.  He says, “I would’t sign my name on the dotted line about this.” But is respecting the difference. “


Leslie Ellis, Serge Prengel, and Jan Winhall July 17, 2021

Leslie Ellis, Serge Prengel, Jan Winhall ~ 6 and 7 minutes video clips
~ Introducing their Integrative Focusing Therapy programme
during a presentation on July 17, 2021

How to develop moment-by-moment presence (6 minutes):

Difficult clients, difficult moments (7 minutes) :

How do we know what is happening for the client? (6 minutes) :

How to integrate mindfulness exercises (5 minutes) :

Do we explicitly share with the client that we’re doing Focusing? (7 minutes):

Is Focusing for everybody? (7 minutes):

The Experiencing Scale ~ References compiled by KH (July 17, 2021)


“In this article, I will present brief therapy excerpts and show exactly what part of a client’s statement, if responded to, is likely to lead to therapeutic movement. Client-centered therapists respond to “feelings,” but what this means when one looks at a client’s statement is not always clear. The theory and research on Experiencing are useful for specifying what can be responded to that is not yet obvious.

The concept of Experiencing (EXP; Gendlin, 1962, 1981, 1984) refers to a client’s immediately sensed, but implicit, experience. One feels “something” but one does not yet know what. In a High EXP process, a client attends directly to this implicit sense and thereby allows its verbal expression. This is a step of therapeutic change. In a Lower EXP level process, a client may fail to discriminate this initially vague sense and get stuck in an intellectual or repetitively emotive process.”

Experiencing Level as a Therapeutic Variable by Marion N. Hendricks, Ph.D. May 1986 
Article reprinted from:
PERSON-CENTERED REVIEW, Vol. I No. 2, May 1986 141-162
Copyright 1986 Sage Publications, Inc.

Introduction and Overview

Research on Experiencing

The Experiencing Process

Clinical Examples of Low, Middle and High Experiencing Levels



Implications of EXP Variable for Clinical Practice

Friendly Attitude





Self Image ~ Body Image ~ Body Schema ~ PolyVagal Theory 

Feldenkrais® Awareness Through Movement® Lessons and Discussions.

Reference pages:
Appreciation for Feldenkrais® Awareness Through Movement® at Corona Plaza Life:
 “I find the minimal movements during the lessons evoke meaningful learning.  I am more aware of that moment when my system is clear and open. I experience an instantaneous felt-sense of curiosity.  I can breathe more freely and see that situations are progressing, so I find a more positive view of life.  I am more and more aware of my learning as I continue the lessons with Katarina and Thinking in Movement teachers at Corona Plaza Life.  I am supported in translating the lessons into a rhythm for myself. Thus I find ways to be conscientious, the best place for my energy and endeavours to land each day, each week, and for each project.”
 –– Alfo Humano, Focusing trainer, Cordoba, Argentina (
“These Feldenkrais classes have really helped  me get in touch with my body, learn what it needs, how to calm my nervous system, and to ignite my innate energy.  Thank you so much for all the presence, attention, and teaching you have done.  I really appreciate it.” 
–– Laurie Brill, New Mexico


Potentiality / Creativity

(there will be an email or a reply at the bottom of the page each time new text is added)

Potentiality in Moshé Feldenkrais lessons for the Peter Brook Theatre Ensemble
Peter Brook 1973 lesson 7 
On the side, differentiation, twisting and zenith

[emphasis added below]

“23. Now stay there with your knees and heels separated and your left hand as it is. Now bring your right elbow in front to touch your left hand, your left wrist, just where it is, and point your fingers towards the sky. Now press your right hand [elbow], your right elbow on the floor ten times.
YOUR LEFT HAND IS NOT DUMB. It is not the palm that comes towards the floor, it’s the fingers, the fingertips. Press them into the floor with your right elbow, do some movements like that, ten small movements one after the other, and as you do so just observe what you do with the rest of your body. Be GENTLE. ”  (emphasis added)

“31a. Now turn a little to your right so you change position. Just a little, not too much. Have your legs however you want. Now, with your left and right hands; no, let’s start with the left. Try lifting your left hand, but do not move it.
No! That’s no good. You raised your hand like someone who is most definitely not omnipotent. He who creates the zenith, the North, and the left would lift his arm in the way that can be seen in the Sistine Chapel in Rome. God above reaches his arm out to Man. It is painted in such a way that the entire world can see how the power of creation passes to Man. So don’t move your hand. Don’t move. Do not move your hand! But let it lift like that of the most powerful man in the world. Do it like Our Father above. No, don’t do it. You don’t know how God does it. Nor do I, but there is a way of lifting that conveys the belief that a person has lifted his arm in order to give life to others. There. Gently. ‘
“Try and see. Imagine that your left-hand lifts to point towards the North Pole. Gently. Don’t lift your arm because when you lift your arm with the elbow straight, … don’t lift. Do nothing. Listen first. We are going to learn how to lift. If you lift your arm now, as you lifted it yesterday whilst picking something up, it won’t resemble the arm we see on the ceiling of that room which we all know about. Good. Gently. Close your eyes. ”


REFERENCE Martin Buber’s “Le Moi et le Toi” [Translator’s Note: “I and Thou”].

 Martin Buber I and Thou / Ich und Du / Le Moi et le Toi 
… published in 1923, and first translated from German to English in 1937.

REFERENCE: Zen in the Art of Archery
Wikipedia, “Zen in the Art of Archery (Zen in der Kunst des Bogenschießens) is a book by German philosophy professor Eugen Herrigel, published in 1948, about his experiences studying Kyūdō, a form of Japanese archery, when he lived in Japan in the 1920s. It is credited with introducing Zen to Western audiences in the late 1940s and 1950s.”

Included is a lovely Cover photo

REFERENCE: Michelangelo’s Creation of Adam –
Sep 14, 2012 – Michelangelo, Creation of Adam, from the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel×474.jpg

REFERENCE“Bento (in Hebrew, Baruch; in Latin, Benedictus)
Spinoza is one of the most important philosophers—and certainly the most radical—of the early modern period.”
~~ “His extremely naturalistic views on God, the world, the human being and knowledge serve to ground a moral philosophy centered on the control of the passions leading to virtue and happiness. They also lay the foundations for a strongly democratic political thought and a deep critique of the pretensions of Scripture and sectarian religion. Of all the philosophers of the seventeenth century, perhaps none have more relevance today than Spinoza.”


SF training (perhaps also Stanley Brown notes)
Esalen (Judith Stransky notes)
Amherst ~ many instances (notes to follow on this page)
David Bohm


REFERENCE ‘Feldenkrais and David Bohm’s Dialogue Model’
– From Feldenkrais Now’sdialo.html
“Moshe Feldenkrais (1904-1984), an engineer with a Ph.D in physics and a martial arts expert, used to say “Our learning is the most important thing we have! ….. Of particular interest for me was that William was at an age when the struggle between “OMNIPOTENCE and insignificance”, which Moshe Feldenkrais talked about in …” (emphasis added)
‘Feldenkrais and David Bohm’s Dialogue Model’ :
Moshe Feldenkrais, Body and Mature Behaviour – A Study of Anxiety, Sex, Gravitation & Learning, International University Press Inc., 1949
” ” Awareness Through Movement, Health Exercises for Personal Growth, Harper& Row,1972
” ” Body Awareness as Healing Therapy, The Case of Nora, Harper & Row, 1977
” ” The Elusive Obvious, Meta Publications, 1981
” ” The Potent Self; A Guide to Spontaneity, Harper & Row, 1985
Transcript of The Feldenkrais Professional Training Program, Amherst, Massachusetts, Week 1&2,1981
~~ NOTES CITED IN THE ARTICLE ‘Feldenkrais and David Bohm’s Dialogue Model’ : 4- feldenkrais zeit, Journal für somatisches Lernen, Ausgabe 3, Loeper Literatur Verlag, 2002
6 -The Forebrain: Sleep, Consciousness, Awareness & Learning, An Interview with Moshe Feldenkrais by Edward Rosenfeld, Interface Journal, Vol. 1,No.3-4,1973, p 47ff
7 – Moshe Feldenkrais, Awareness Through Movement, p. 11
12- Amherst Training Program, 8 June 81, p. 2
24- Awareness Through Movement, p. 19
29- Moshe Feldenkrais, Learning to Learn , p.13
~~ QUOTES FROM THE ARTICLE ‘Feldenkrais and David Bohm’s Dialogue Model’ :
“As pioneers of participatory research into human consciousness both Moshe Feldenkrais and David Bohm were way ahead of their time. Very occasionally parallels between their externally so very different approaches were pointed out, – for instance in the late fifties (when David Bohm was teaching in Israel) by Gideon Carmi, one of Bohm’s students and later collaborators, a man who excelled in physics, music, and art, and also studied with Moshe Feldenkrais. “Carmi explained to Bohm that he believed in a deep connection between physics, consciousness, and these subtle, minimal movements. (32)” NOTE 32- Infinite Potential, p. 170
“David Bohm’s focusing on constructive thinking and Moshe Feldenkrais’s aiming at constructive intentional action – ultimately involve the same intensive yet relaxed attention.”
• Moshe Feldenkrais: “Do not concentrate – rather attend well to the entire situation, your body and your surroundings, by scanning the whole sufficiently to become aware of any change or difference, concentrating just enough to perceive this.” (35)
• David Bohm: “There may be a limited kind of attention, such as concentration, as well as an unlimited kind – the fundamental kind. Through such attention, we could move into more and more levels of the implicate order – the more general levels of the whole process. At these general levels, consciousness in one person differs very little from consciousness in another.” (36)
• “all those who come to really understand the Feldenkrais Method – may supplant the childishly egocentric impulse of necessity that is responsible for much of our incoherent and dysfunctional thinking, feeling, and acting.”
• “The explicit permission or even invitation to make mistakes – quite intentionally – in the Feldenkrais Method similarly leads to much more creative learning than any anxious striving “to get it right”.”
• Moshe Feldenkrais was equally convinced that holding on to the notion of an all-important ‘I’ or ‘me’ is infantile and ultimately dysfunctional: “Unless a stage is reached at which self-regard ceases to be the main motivating force, any improvement achieved will never be sufficient to satisfy the individual. In fact, as a man grows and improves, his entire existence centres increasingly on what he does and how, while who does it becomes of ever decreasing importance.” (24) NOTE 24- Awareness Through Movement, p. 19

REFERENCE The role of the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex
in the Moshé Feldenkrais lesson for the Peter Brook Theatre Ensemble
Peter Brook 1973 lesson 7 
On the side, differentiation, twisting and zenith
~~ quotes below from “How the Fencing Reflex Connects Life and Death, Primitive reflexes shepherd us into this world, and out.” Amanda Darrach, April 5, 2018
~”By the seventh month of my pregnancy, I sometimes felt a stroking motion on the inside of my abdomen, a repeated arc of movement traced by a tiny limb.”
~”My daughter Lucy weighed 6 pounds when she was born two months later.”
~ “Her wrinkled arms and legs stayed drawn in to her chest, but then one arm and leg would extend, the arm reaching out in front of her and sweeping out to the side, taking in the expanse of the room until she lay twisted like an archer. The motion already was familiar to me: the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex.”
~~ Link to the article

NOTE: the article quoted above(regarding asymmetrical tonic neck reflex) was also posted by Tiffany Sankary Wilkinson on FPAW ~ here are Tiffany’s notes
“There’s a porous boundary between reflex and reaction. We sometimes think of our reactions to crises as reflexive, but they are behavioral, originating from the less ancient parts of our brains. Reflexes, too, can be colored by experience. The neurologist Karel Bobath wrote that he favored the word “reaction” to describe an infant’s step reflex, in order to express the “variability and potentiality of adaptation to the different demands of the environment.” Touwen wrote that neurologists are not always strict about the separation between the terms “reflex” and “reaction.” Reflexes, he argued, do not exist separately from the world. He preferred to view the nervous system as existing in a “dynamic state,” one that grew “because of a continuous influx of energy and information.” The rooting reflex, for example, begins with a rhythmic side-to-side motion before developing into a complex function, a gathering-in of the breast. Whether “reflex” or “reaction,” Touwen wrote, these responses must be an “age-specific display adapted to the infant’s needs.”


From this sequence: De Anima Books II and III (With Passages From Book I)
Aristotle Translated with an Introduction and Notes by D. W. Hamlyn

  (emphasis added) 

402a23. First surely we must determine in which of the genera the soul is and what it is; I mean whether it is a particular thing and substance or quality or quantity or some other of the categories which have been distinguished. And secondly we must determine whether it is one of those things which are in POTENTIALITY or whether it is rather a kind of actuality; for this makes no small difference. And we must inquire also if it is divisible or indivisible and whether every soul is of like kind or not; and if not of like kind, whether differing in species or genus.

402b3. For as things are, people who speak and inquire about the soul seem to study the human soul only. But we must take care not to overlook the question whether there is one definition(L) of the soul, as of animal, or whether there is a different one for each, as of horse, dog, man, and god, the universal animal being either nothing or secondary; and it would be similar for any other common predicate.

402b9. Furthermore, if there are not many souls but only parts, should we inquire into the whole soul or its parts? It is difficult too to decide which of these are really different from each other, and whether we must inquire into the parts first or their functions, e.g. thinking or the intellect, and perceiving or that which can perceive (k); and similarly for the rest also. And if the functions come


TRANSLATION                               403A.11

first, the question might be raised whether we should inquire into the corresponding objects before these, e.g. the object of perception before that which can perceive (k,) and the object of thought before the intellect.

402b16.  It seems that not only is ascertaining what a thing is useful for a consideration of the reasons for the attributes which follow upon essences (as in mathematics ascertaining what straight and curved or line and surface are is useful for seeing to how many right angles the angles of a triangle are equal), but also conversely the attributes contribute a great part to the knowledge of what a thing is; for when we are able to give an account of either all or most of the attributes as they appear to us, then we shall be able to speak best about the essence too; for the starting-point of every demonstration is what a thing is, so that, for those definitions which do not enable us to ascertain the attributes nor even make it easy to guess about this, it is clear that they have all been stated dialectically and to no purpose.

403a3. There is also the problem whether the properties of the soul are all common also that which has it or whether any are peculiar to the soul itself; for it is necessary to deal with this, though it is not easy. It appears that in most cases the soul is not affected nor does it act apart from the body, e.g. in being angry, being confident, wanting, and perceiving in general; although thinking looks most like being peculiar to the soul. But if this too is a form of imagination or does not exist apart from imagination, it would not be possible even for this to exist apart from the body.

403a10. If then there is any of the functions of affections of the soul which is peculiar to it, it will be possible for



403a11                                        DE ANIMA                                  I. 1

it to be separated from the body. But if there is nothing peculiar to it, it will not be separable, but it will be like the straight, to which, qua straight, many properties belong, e.g. it will touch a bronze sphere at a point, although the straight if separated will not so touch; for it is inseparable, if it is always found with some body.

403a16. It seems that all the affections of the soul involve the body – passion, gentleness, fear, pity, confidence, and, further, joy and both loving and hating; for at the same time as these the body is affected in a certain way. This is shown by the fact that sometimes when severe and manifest sufferings befall us we are not provoked to exasperation or fear, while at other time we are moved by small and imperceptible sufferings when the body is aroused and is as it is is when it is in anger. This is even further evident; for men may come to have the affections of the frightened although nothing frightening is taking place.

403a24. If this is so, it is clear that the affections {of the soul} are principles (L) involving matter. Hence their definitions are such as ‘Being angry is a particular movement of the body of such and such a kind, or a part or POTENTIALITY of it, as a result of this thing and for the sake of that’.  And for these reasons an inquiry concerning the soul, either every soul or this kind of soul, is at once the province of the student of nature.

403a29.  But the student of nature and the dialectician would define each of these different, e.g. what anger is. For the latter would define it as a desire for retaliation or something of the sort, the former as the boiling of the blood and hot stuff round the heart. Of these, the one gives the matter, the other the form and principle (L).  For this is



I.1                                       TRANSLATION                            403b19

the principle (L) of the thing, but it must be in a matter of such and such a kind if it is to be. Thus the principle (L) of a house is, say, that it is a covering to prevent destruction by winds, rain, and heat, but someone else will say that a house is stones, bricks, and timber, and another again that it is the form in them for the sake of these other things.

403b7.  Which of these, then, is he student of nature?  Is it the one who is concerned with the matter, but is ignorant of the principle (L, or the one who is concerned with the principle (L) only?  Or is it rather the one who is concerned with the product of both? Who then is each of the others? Or is there no particular person who is concerned with the properties of matter which are not separable nor treated s separable, while the student of nature is concerned with everything which is a function or affection of such and such a body and such and such a matter? Anything not of this kind is the concern of someone else, and in some cases of a craftsman perhaps, e.g. a carpenter or doctor. The properties which are not separable, but which are not treated as properties of such and such a body but in abstraction, are the concern of the mathematician. Those which are treated as separable are the concern of the ‘first philosopher’.


​Line by Line Commentary on Aristotle’s De Anima Eugene T. Gendlin, Ph.D. University of Chicago Copyright © 2012 by Eugene T. Gendlin Published by the Focusing Institute
Gene’s Introduction, Books I and II [PDF]
​Gene’s Book III [PDF]


De Anima Books II and III (With Passages From Book I)
Translated with an Introduction and Notes by D. W. Hamlyn and With a Report on Recent Work and a Revised Bibliography by Christopher Shields
A Clarendon Press Publication

Clarendon Aristotle Series

PDF Hamlyn’s translation of De Anima,%20Christopher%20Shields,%20D.%20W.%20Hamlyn.pdf

AY 24 The body image, a lecture. ~ references and Quoting Moshe Feldenkrais

“If you want to read a scientific work that is accurate and interesting I refer you to Paul Schilder, a Viennese physiologist. In the beginning he was a psychoanalyst, but he wrote primarily about the physiology of the body image. He is the-man who introduced this concept. He showed that mentally ill people don’t have a body image that is reasonably normal. Their body image is distorted and not similar to a healthy person, for example some feel their arms much longer than they really are.

Schilder worked with the EMOTIONAL, PSYCHIC, and SPIRITUAL body images. There is the body. image from PHYSIOLOGY and the image THAT YOU SEE. All these images form through the personal experience of the person. They grow with the person. For-example, a child, whose hand was amputated at birth, has a brain with very few cells connected to the amputated hand. There won’t be any connections to feelings of heat, pain, pressure, or touch. Everything that person does uses only one hand so his physiological body image will be different from someone with two hands. When he learns to speak one language, American English, he will organize his tongue to say an “R” or a “W” like an American. His body image is different from someone who speak Arabic or Japanese. The differences between each occur according to personal experiences.

In a complete system that is balanced and developed, there is a realistic relationship among those THREE images – the image THAT YOU SEE, the EMOTIONAL image, and the image EXTERNALLY DEVELOPED from the FEELINGS IN the BODY. All three have a relationship. If someone walks without knowing the length of his arms or the distance from the arm to an object, he would get hit each time he walked through a door. He may burn his hand on a stove because he doesn’t know the distance between his hand and the hot stove. When I pass a door or a stove, I have a feeling for the distance. When I want to move from here to another point I have a feeling of the length of my arm. I feel where it is and what it is. I have a kinaesthetic feeling.” (emphasis added)

AY 24 The body image, a lecture. Awareness Through Movement® Lesson from Alexander Yanai @ Copyright May 1994. All rights reserved by and to the International Feldenkrais Federation, Paris France in cooperation with The Feldenkrais Institute, Tel Aviv, Israel

“If you take a person who does not know his image in the water – if you put someone who cannot swim and put them in water not deep enough to elicit a fear of drowning – you can see through his movements what parts of his body he doesn’t use or know. Most of his movement it will seem as he wanted to catch or hold something in his hands. His

legs will move as if he wanted to push to be sure he is standing. He TRIES to do IN THE WATER what he PREVIOUSLY learned to do on LAND. These are the movements that DISRUPT swimming. When he is in the water, he can only use familiar images of himself.

If he wants TO IMPROVE that, if he wants to learn how to swim, he must know what arms and legs really do in water rather than what he thinks he does. That is the whole secret of swimming.
(End of lecture)”  (emphasis added)

1 Schilder, Paul, Mind, Perception, and Thought, Columbia University
Press, 1942 "

AY 24 The body image, a lecture. Awareness Through Movement® Lesson from Alexander Yanai @ Copyright May 1994. All rights reserved by and to the International Feldenkrais Federation, Paris France in cooperation with The Feldenkrais Institute, Tel Aviv, Israel

Mind: perception and thought in their constructive aspects. P Schilder Columbia University Press, 1942

“In his earlier book on The image and appearance of the human body (see 9: 5693) the author clarified his general attitudes and principles concerning psychological problems. In this book the principles and results obtained in his investigation of the BODY IMAGE image are applied to the investigation of the principles of PERCEPTION and THOUGHT, and he extends the results and methods of modern psychology into a field not yet studied from this point of view.
(emphasis added)


PAUL SCHILDER ~ additional reference
The Image and Appearance of the Human Body: Studies in the Constructive Energies of the Psyche. Paul Schilder. Psychology Press, 1999 – Psychology – 362 pages. 0 Reviews. First Published in 1999. The_Image_and_Appearance_of_the_Human_Bo.html?id=L2CNWxKdWhMC

PAUL SCHILDER ~ additional reference
Psychosomatic Medicine: January 1944 – Volume 6 – Issue 1 – ppg 108-109
Book Reviews: PDF Only

PAUL_SCHILDER__Mind,_Perception_and_Thought_in.18.aspx __________________
“The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of two components that make up the nervous system of bilateral animals, with the other part being the central nervous system (CNS). The PNS consists of the nerves and ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord” https://

24 replies
  1. happybones
    happybones says:

    The Brain’s Sense of Movement (Perspectives in Cognitive Neuroscience)
    Alain Berthoz

    Transforming Body Image: Learning to Love the Body You Have Paperback – Sept. 1 1985
    by Marcia Germaine Hutchinson

    With appreciation to Rachel for sending this reference:
    The Brain’s Sense of Movement
    Alain Berthoz
    Translated by Giselle Weiss
    Series: Perspectives in Cognitive Neuroscience
    Copyright Date: 2000
    Published by: Harvard University Press

      • happybones
        happybones says:

        Much appreciation to Rachel for posting the link
        Bonnie Bainbridge Cohen
        Engaging Self and Other through Embodiment: A Body-Mind Centering® Approach

        Here is the text (and I plan to post a small response ..
        “Because whatever else is happening, we are
        the material. We are what we’re studying. We are
        what this is about individually and as a community.
        So what if sometimes I say
        I don’t have any support. Nobody supports me.
        But a key is that, do you remember the support that you did create
        that’s underneath all support that you can receive?
        Without remembering the support that you created, how are you going to recognize
        the support that you’re given or the kind of support that actually you need?
        At the same time, how do we support somebody that we want desperately to support
        but they don’t feel it, because they don’t feel their own that they created.
        The underlying theme of this workshop was for us to experience our own embodiment of
        self and other and of self other.
        Not just to learn about it but to jointly participate in the process.
        My vision was for each person and the group as a whole to become more aware
        of how we develop a sense of self and other as individuals,
        as individuals within a community,
        and as a community of individuals.
        The foundation of our explorations was the experiencing of the multiple aspects of self
        through remembering our embryological development.
        The integration of self and other into a unified selfother rests on the clarity of
        our mutual recognition of and respect for both a separate individuated self and a
        separate individuated other.
        In exploring this a sense of comfort and safety within the community
        needs to be established.
        To foster a safe open ground, we began each morning by creating
        space for each person to experience this process within the context of the group.
        During the classes, participants had the choice to explore the embryological material alone,
        in partners, and/or in small groups.
        Over the course of these four days,
        we gradually built and shared our sense of self and other within community.

        On Thursday, September 30, 2021, 05:53:28 p.m. PDT, Katarina Listens wrote:

        and this too thank you
        Bonnie Bainbridge Cohen

        Engaging Self and Other through Embodiment: A Body-Mind Centering® Approach

    • happybones
      happybones says:

      Dear Rachel, Thank you for your scholarship and support of the Self Image Project.
      Adding below the notes from the video you posted for us:
      Bonnie Bainbridge Cohen Free Your Spine through Changing How You Transfer Your Weight Plus other videos of interest. Every skeleton that I’ve ever seen,
      that I’ve ever seen,
      always has it standing this way.
      (laughter from the crowd)
      Maybe because it doesn’t have the
      psoas minor to bring it up.
      But that’s the image that we end up having, where,
      I just thought of something else.
      I’m going to suggest that everybody,
      in the next half of the day and tomorrow,
      that you, you take this pelvis,
      and you just hold it.
      How does it feel?
      And this is where the weight is, here.
      Not here.
      Did I do it?
      Yeah, it’s this way.
      This, this isn’t stable,
      but here,
      it’s very light.
      It doesn’t have a lot of weight,
      but it helps to feel that the pelvis is here.
      And we’re not doing muscles now so much,
      but if I put it in here, the psoas minor,
      not the major, holds up the pubis to T12,
      Oh, I got it for a different reason,
      is that you want to feel that –
      not that you want to feel, I don’t care what you feel –
      but if, language is challenging.
      That this is created from the lateral column,
      this is created from the other lateral column.
      And they, they create then, this pubic disk.
      And this is how they, they move.
      Which is what you were saying,
      that they connect to each other.
      So the transfer of weight is here.
      Not here.
      Rather than here.
      So that every time I moved my leg,
      I’m tangentially doing something in the back.
      Where here, no, I’m just moving my legs.
      My spine can stay free.

  2. happybones
    happybones says:

    “A Slinky is a pre-compressed helical spring toy invented by Richard James in the early 1940s. … These interesting characteristics have contributed to its success as a toy in its home country of the United States, resulting in many popular toys with slinky components in a wide range of countries.
    “The infinity symbol is a mathematical symbol representing the concept of infinity. The symbol resembles a geometric figure called a lemniscate”
    AY 82 A clock in front of the face
    “Please lie quietly for a moment. Lengthen the legs. Extend the legs. Lie, for a moment, completely quietly. Lie without moving. Listen to the parts that are lying on the floor. [Notice] how are they lying for you to be able to notice differences if there will be such.

    la. Now, please put the feet standing on the floor. With the head . . . turn the head on the floor so the nose will draw a circle. The nose will draw a circle in the air. The head lies on the floor. Pay attention. Think that there is a clock in front of you. A clock . . . to your eyes. A clock [is in front of] your eyes so the nose can move on the surface of the clock, pass through the hour twelve o’clock while the chin is far away from the chest, and then continue moving in the direction of the clock.

    Amherst FI with Larry Lesson 9: Left foot and neck organizations. Moshé talks about allowing a person time to find his own way. (29 July 1980)

    • happybones
      happybones says:

      … ”
      wearing these and how do we
      breathe that breathing is like so
      essential to our
      human functioning and
      yeah so i’m so looking forward to being
      on the floor or the chair or however
      you’re going to teach this
      and absorbing your teaching and
      yeah really looking forward to it well
      thank you
      and you know right now i don’t know
      about you tiffany but um
      some cities are mandating uh compulsory
      masks in enclosed spaces like in stores
      i don’t know have you
      had that situation yeah i mean
      yeah we’re needing to wear masks
      wherever we go yeah
      yeah and so my city has also done that
      and so it’s sort of extending the need
      and the challenge to learn how to
      well behind a mask and one of the
      reasons why i decided to do this
      is at the beginning when people were
      wearing masks they were really
      struggling with it you could see how
      people were having it on their faces
      now that it’s a little bit more
      normalized you know maybe they’re
      breathing a little easier but
      people are still struggling with it so
      i’m here to help out with that so yeah
      so i’ll just um i’ll leave the little
      window here and give you the full space
      and then come back in at the end and
      okay thank you and so uh just a heads up
      you’ll need your mask
      everyone will need a mask handy if you
      can be happy to have one yeah and
      we can do the lessons seated or lying
      down you know whatever
      works for you and it’s going to be sort
      of a uh
      an abbreviated version of the lesson
      that i have on my website
      i have a full version but this one um
      we’re going to be talking i’m going to
      give you a little bit of background
      first of all
      so that you understand why it’s
      important to do
      certain a certain type of breathing um
      so that the perception is that when we
      wear a mask when we put something on our
      that there’s less air so that does
      that is a problem that there’s a
      that um there’s less air and that you
      have to breathe
      harder or faster or that there’s more
      effort involved
      and it doesn’t have to be that way you
      can still
      breathe light and you can still
      be gentle with your breath and for those
      have the tendency to hyperventilate to
      breathe too fast
      or too big this is where wearing a mask
      is really challenging because if you’re
      doing if you’re doing that
      and you’re breathing through your mouth
      it’s it gets really hot back there
      it gets hot you’re blowing a lot of air
      you might feel it coming out the sides
      you might feel the heat coming up and
      up your glasses it’s no fun it’s
      and it’s frustrating so here’s the deal
      we don’t have to breathe harder we don’t
      have to breathe heavier
      we can breathe light and be gentle with
      our breath
      so i’m going to be guiding you a little
      bit through that that idea
      so i’ve just got some notes i’m looking
      down at
      so the size of the breath doesn’t have
      to be as big
      the speed doesn’t have to be as fast and
      we can still
      breathe deeply without it being really
      um so another key thing that
      people tend to do when they put a mask
      is they’ll default to a mouth breath
      mouth breathing will actually
      impede your oxygen supply
      it’s much less efficient
      than nose breathing the nose breathing
      does there’s a lot of benefits to
      breathing through the nose
      and this is something that i’ve been
      learning a lot about in physiology
      in the pateko method i’ve been studying
      the patako method
      and um i just have a little handy
      dandy image here of
      my uh nose and the mouth
      and that there’s so much space sorry i’m
      reversed here so i’m getting all
      uh there’s so much space in through here
      for the air to travel through the nose
      to warm the air to filter the air
      and then to draw it down into the
      trachea so you look at the space it’s
      much bigger than than you think
      the nose is for breathing the mouth
      is for eating and talking not for
      so well if you look at the space in the
      cavity here
      big part of it is the tongue takes up a
      lot of room
      and then this part is where the mouth is
      and again it travels down
      joins with the the trachea and
      the esophagus that’s just to give you a
      visual of
      how important it is to stick with them
      with a nose breath when you’re behind
      that mask
      so that’s just just to give you that
      visual so what i’m going to do is
      is guide you a little bit on
      first without the mask and then you can
      put the mask on
      so that you can feel how easy it can be
      so i’m going to ask you to just if you
      want to lie down you can lie down with
      your knees bent
      or long just wherever you’re comfortable
      and then if you’re sitting
      just make sure that when you’re sitting
      your your
      feet are flat on the floor um
      and that you’re you feel long in your
      spine you’re comfortable
      you feel your head kind of over your
      your ears over your shoulders just so
      that there isn’t anything in the front
      impeding your breath
      so just take a moment to feel what
      that’s like
      just get yourself oriented if you’re
      you can feel your sit bones and your
      feet on the floor
      you can rest your hands someplace
      comfortably for you
      and if you’re lying down then have your
      knees bent or long and make sure you
      have something under your head
      now if you’re doing a breathing lesson
      you want to make sure that your head
      is lined up fairly well over your body
      so if your head is tipped too far back
      or too far forward that’s going to
      airflow and so
      be sure to have some support under your
      so just take a moment to notice your
      just just what you’re what you’re doing
      right now
      you know where do you where do you feel
      do you feel it in the chest or the belly
      and you can put your hand on your chest
      and belly
      just to get also some feedback from your
      just noticing
      what’s moving
      and then just notice what what’s the air
      like going through your nose
      yeah and so let’s let’s focus with the
      air traveling through the nostrils
      just feel how that breeze the air
      traveling through the nostrils to the
      back way back
      into the sinuses and then of course
      it travels to the back of the throat
      so we just take that slow breath in
      and out through the nostrils
      tuning into the sensation of the air
      traveling to the back of the throat
      so you might notice a breeze you might
      something if you don’t feel anything
      traveling back here
      you might feel the breeze at the
      or air traveling over the upper lip
      so you might also notice that as you
      breathe in
      the sensation of air is cool
      and as you breathe out the sensation of
      air is warm
      just follow that that temperature see if
      you can sense that temperature
      and then see if you can follow it down
      into the throat area now as you
      had seen from that that model
      a lot of people will sort of perceive
      the air traveling quite far forward
      in the face and in the throat and i want
      you to think about the air actually
      quite far back so that you’re feeling
      a flow right at the back of the throat
      see if you can sense that
      in in fact the lungs
      take up quite a bit of space in the
      thoracic cavity
      and there’s a lot of room for the lungs
      in your back and and so
      i want you to see if you can sense as
      you’re feeling the air traveling through
      the nostrils
      to the back of the throat into the
      could you imagine the lungs being in
      your back
      and as you do this as you’re doing this
      sensing and feeling
      make it make up a mental note that it
      doesn’t have to be
      big that it can be a light
      small breath if you tend to
      take a big big breath you might be
      missing some sensations
      so i’m going to ask you to slow down and
      make it smaller than you normally would
      and as you do that as you let the ear
      flow to the back of your throat thinking
      of the back lungs filling
      and emptying so if you’re on your back
      you might feel a change in pressure
      against the floor
      if you’re sitting you might feel your
      moving or maybe widening a little bit
      just see what what comes for you
      as you’re breathing
      in and out nice and light
      and slow
      and the reason why a slower
      light breath is really useful
      is that the body needs carbon dioxide
      in order to release oxygen to the
      so i’m going to say that again because a
      lot of people don’t understand
      that carbon dioxide is actually vital
      to the functioning in their body for
      maintaining our ph
      for dilating blood vessels and for
      allowing oxygen to release from the
      to our cells that’s where we want the
      we want oxygen to go to our cells
      to our heart and to our brain
      so as we slow the breath down
      and you might have moments where you
      you need to take a big breath because
      you feel a sense of urgency
      for oxygen so go ahead and go back to
      that that’s okay
      make this as comfortable as you can the
      idea is to slowly ease yourself
      into a slow light breath
      as you slow the breath down
      the body has enough time to improve as
      carbon dioxide level and that carbon
      dioxide level
      will improve oxygen supply
      you need one for the other
      now the part of the reason if you’re
      breathing slow and light
      and if you have moments where you have a
      sense of
      oxygen hunger that has to do
      with the receptors in the brain
      monitoring carbon dioxide
      and sometimes what ends up happening is
      that if we are used to breathing
      fast and shallow and
      through the mouth rapidly then what ends
      up happening is those receptors become
      hypersensitive to carbon dioxide
      and so even though you’ve got enough
      oxygen in your system actually your
      blood oxygen is almost always about 98
      that’s a lot it’s fairly saturated so
      the perception of oxygen hunger is
      actually your body reacting
      or overreacting to carbon dioxide
      by regularly slowing the breath down
      by keeping it light and efficient
      then your body gets used to a more
      normalized level of carbon dioxide
      and this is where you will start
      that your brain is clearer that you can
      think clear
      that your heart rate drops all this is
      it’s so vital carbon dioxide is so
      vital to our functioning so here’s this
      of our mask as we breathe slowly
      and lightly and feel the lungs in our
      then then there’s less less flow behind
      the mass
      the mass can become much more
      so just take a moment to just feel that
      and just notice notice the speed see if
      able to to reduce the speed
      of your breath and the size
      and as you’re doing that you might sense
      back to the lungs and feeling could you
      that as you inhale the lungs
      kind of draw downward into the back
      as the diaphragm descends
      and pulls air through the nostrils
      into the back of the throat and into
      your lungs
      that you feel this sort of oozing
      expansion of the lungs
      into your back almost down to your waist
      and if you don’t exactly feel it you can
      it the lungs actually
      get extend further down
      into our body in the back than the front
      in the front we have the stomach and the
      that that that is more anterior
      but the back lungs can slide fairly low
      into the back so just take a moment to
      feel that that expansion that you’re
      drawing air down
      and deep into the lungs
      and then of course when you breathe out
      you’ll feel
      the dye from rising
      and the lungs emptying
      of course the lungs when they fill they
      don’t just feel
      downward they feel upward they expand
      as a balloon might expand
      and so just take that time to feel
      where you might sense your lungs
      so maybe behind the shoulder
      blades or
      into the armpits
      or maybe somewhere mid back
      and maybe maybe somewhere near the
      floating ribs
      just sense how how you feel it
      into your sides maybe
      into the front
      and into the back
      now as you slow the breath as you
      breathe in
      and out there’s a moment at
      the end of the exhale where
      the body kind of softens or relaxes
      so as you finish the exhale think about
      as you finish the exhale there’s a
      moment where
      there’s a release of tension maybe you
      might find that
      in the tummy or in the chest
      in the sternum
      or maybe somewhere in the sides
      breathing is it can be a deeply
      ingrained habit and so some people
      never really completely
      go into a rest phase in their exhale
      there might be places that the ribs are
      being held
      wide or lifted
      or or the belly
      doesn’t completely relax and soften
      at the end of the exhale
      so look for where could you feel
      that finishing of the exhale where maybe
      the ribs soften and
      move inward or maybe
      the chest softens a bit
      or the belly or the lower belly
      or maybe somewhere in the pelvis or the
      low back where
      where might you feel that finishing of
      the exhale
      now when we finish our exit our exhale
      is actually the passive
      phase of our breathing
      the inhale is the the active phase
      the diaphragm muscles are active when
      you inhale
      and then they become quieter as you
      and the ribs some of the rib muscles
      become quieter and they narrow
      and come inward so
      something interesting happens at the
      exhale and near the end of the exhale
      where it’s almost like a releasing
      in the system without releasing pressure
      you get better oxygen supply
      there’s less tension in the body in the
      so that oxygen can be released better
      into the tissues
      so one of the interesting things about
      carbon dioxide as well is that that it
      dilates our carotid arteries
      and that’s really important for blood
      blood flow to the brain oxygen flow to
      the brain if we over
      breathe our our
      blood vessels constrict and it reduces
      flow so as we slow the breath
      you might start feeling yourself feeling
      or maybe warmer
      in your limbs
      just tune into your body temperature
      any places that you’re noticing
      something softening
      a little bit more relaxing a little bit
      and also sensing that that end of the
      is there a moment where you could
      pause your breath before you breathe in
      see breathing doesn’t doesn’t
      necessarily have to be
      constant when we’re resting or when
      not as active uh
      like not running or exercising
      the rhythm of the breath involves a
      at the end of the exhale
      and so see if there’s a there’s a place
      for you
      that you’re comfortable with that you
      could pause
      the breath at the end of the exhale and
      not feel
      not feel under tension when you breathe
      back in
      see if you can find that rhythm where
      you breathe in
      you breathe out and you sink into this
      pause and then you breathe in
      and out and sink into a pause
      place to rest
      and see if you can keep that rhythm and
      anytime it gets disturbed anytime you
      you gotta take a big breath go ahead do
      restore your feeling of comfort
      and so that you don’t feel panicky or
      when you’re when you’re training
      yourself to get more and more
      with a higher carbon dioxide level in
      your body which you need
      you need that
      so just feeling that pause and noticing
      how long is that pause if you get to
      that place where you can breathe out
      and take a little pause in your breath
      is that two seconds
      is that five seconds what is it
      what’s comfortable for you so that when
      you breathe back in that it’s not
      a panicked inhale that it’s soft in
      and out and i liken this
      too if you watch a baby sleeping it’s
      quiet it’s there isn’t a lot to see
      and it’s global so there’s this idea of
      deep breath the deep mu not meaning big
      but that that there’s the capacity for the
      lung in the front and the back and the” …

      • happybones
        happybones says:

        …”if you watch a baby sleeping it’s
        quiet it’s there isn’t a lot to see
        and it’s global so there’s this idea of
        deep breath the deep mu not meaning big
        but that that there’s capacity for the
        lung in the front and the back and the
        to to fill with air
        and not to be restricted
        so you notice that even if you were to
        imagine someone who’s a meditator or
        a monk meditating
        you might notice that
        it almost looks like they’re not
        it’s so simple it’s almost like the
        diaphragm is taking over
        all of the activity and all the
        additional work
        that unfortunately we’ve gotten used to
        because of different types of breathing
        we seem to think that it has to be big
        for it to be good
        and it doesn’t it actually causes more
        in the body we want to reduce
        the effort we don’t want to be revving
        our engines all the time when we’re
        we wanted to make it a smooth light
        where you don’t hear it it’s quiet
        and it’s a fairly steady calm
        pace now if you
        feel like you’re kind of getting to that
        where it’s feeling like it’s moving in a
        certain kind of rhythm
        where you can really feel that exhale
        and finish the exhale i’m going to ask
        to put your mask on to grab hold of your
        mask if you happen to have it handy you
        don’t have to but
        if you happen to have it handy and
        you’re lying down you can stay lying
        or you can sit to try it if you’re
        seated just grab it
        and secure it to your face make sure
        that you if you’ve got a band there to
        sort of clip it around your nose
        and if you’ve got glasses you can tuck
        it under
        the glasses so that
        it doesn’t kind of get in the way
        and if you have if you have your mask on
        i’m going to ask you to again come back
        to that nose breath
        and let’s slow in
        and out and pause
        in and out
        and pause so now i’m
        i’m describing a rhythm but you need to
        find the rhythm that works for you right
        and again i go into more detail with
        the audio lesson i have on my on my
        website but
        but here you want to be able to
        just take it to the pace that you’re
        comfortable with
        but know that it’s lighter
        and slower than you normally would would
        and that there’s some place at the end
        of the exhale where
        you can fall into a quiet
        place almost like you’re
        like almost as though we were drifting
        off to sleep that kind of
        easy soft breath
        and when you have the mask just notice
        what does that feel like you might feel
        a bit of warmth
        around your face
        but notice that if you reduce the speed
        and the volume you won’t feel
        all that air blowing through the mask
        you want to reduce the volume so it’s
        not a
        big fast like tunnel like experience but
        a soft rhythm soft
        light rhythm where you still feel the
        air you’ll still you actually will feel
        it more behind the mask you’ll feel the
        warmth a little bit more behind the mask
        but just notice the air going in
        and out and
        pausing and that you can be behind a
        and still have that calm light breath
        go about your day with that calm light
        breathing through the nose
        feeling the air traveling way back
        in the throat feeling that
        the lungs really opening
        into the back and the sides and you have
        all this capacity
        that it doesn’t have to be fast you can
        be slow you can
        slowly fill that balloon
        and slowly empty it
        and then finding that pause right at the
        end of the exhale
        now you also want to be aware when you
        have that mask on
        that you make sure your head is still
        where you think it is it’s still if
        you’re sitting
        it’s still above your shoulders
        when people put a mask on that they
        change the position of their head
        so see if you can find that comfortable
        light kind of bobble head spot
        so that you don’t impede any air flow
        that’s traveling through the back
        of the throat into the trachea and down
        into the lungs
        and just take your time to feel what
        that’s like to behind
        to be behind that mask and that you can
        be calm
        cool and collected and know
        that you’re doing the right thing
        wearing a mask when you go outside
        when you go out into public spaces where
        you cannot physically distance
        and you go into inside spaces where
        maybe the air flow isn’t as good or the
        ventilation isn’t as good
        you are doing yourself a favor
        and other people a favor so
        having the security of knowing that
        and being able to stay with that calm
        light breath
        behind the mask is really doable
        so thank you for joining me
        for that lesson i hope you found it
        and helpful
        how are you doing tiffany how’d you do
        with that lesson
        hey love your mask
        yeah that was super lovely i
        i was really illuminating in that i have
        i think i’ve had this basic like
        fear of breathing at all in wearing the
        i was noticing like oh i actually i
        think i’ve just
        unconsciously had this story like i
        can’t breathe when i have the mask on so
        i think that was part of my my um
        wish in doing this with you but i i was
        so lovely to
        step into that slower calm
        place and actually feel that i could
        and have something in my system really
        that i can get the breath that i need
        absolutely not i think i was just
        already kind of like panicked i can’t
        breathe on some kind of unconscious
        level so
        it’s actually um some of the taco method
        some of the practitioners are finding
        that the mask has been helping people
        who are who are likely to hyperventilate
        and breathe through their mouth it
        recaptures some of the carbon dioxide so
        don’t lose so much of it so um some
        people in the pateka method are saying
        it’s actually been helpful it’s calming
        people down
        wow interesting i used
        when i first got interested i i got this
        book by patrick
        mcewen the oxygen advantage and she
        talks a lot about
        the chemistry physiology
        and and how to recalibrate and normalize
        breath one of the interesting things
        about the nose breath
        is that we have receptors in our nose
        that capture
        nitric oxide nitric
        oxide dilates our bronchioles
        so when we breathe through our nose our
        bronchials open more
        which again improves
        oxygen oxygenation to the body
        another important aspect of nose
        nice nice someone was saying too that
        um we could see their eyeglasses were
        not getting fogged up
        yes and that’s another like bonus i have
        a lot of my
        my students will say that that when they
        reduce what they call the tidal volume
        they reduce that flow it becomes a
        instead of like a big tide of air
        it becomes this gentle type
        and when that happens it doesn’t get
        your glasses don’t get all fogged up
        and i’m also loving the just the
        reminder of the awareness of
        the breath and the back too so that
        always just
        the three-dimensionality of the
        breathing you know not just being all
        about like breath is happening right
        yeah yeah yeah and of course as you know
        as a feldenkrais practitioner it happens
        in a lot other places it affects
        palette it affects the pelvic floor it’s
        it’s huge it’s so
        vital to our sense of security and
        feeling safe
        and feeling comfortable and our overall
        health yeah thank you
        thank you i’d love to hear from any of
        you who are
        here anything about your experience if
        you want to write it in the comments
        and um faria website is
        her name for if you want
        to check out
        her other lessons and connect with her
        beyond today yeah
        and that is my last name it is my last
        name was born with that last name
        people say did you make that up
        you got you were born you were born with
        the credentials
        yeah and also
        if you’ve been following along with the
        other nervous system care lessons
        we also have a a sale 40 off of movement
        and creativity courses
        and i think the link should be somewhere
        in the
        comments somewhere and that’s through
        and if you’re watching this uh beyond
        this week then you can just
        go to movement and and
        check out what we have we also have a
        movement and creativity library which is
        a library of
        over 200 different feldenkrais lessons
        with over 20 different teachers
        and farias this lesson will be in there
        um she’s gonna include some more lessons
        in the library soon so you can check
        those out and the library is open
        for visitors for free and new members
        the last two or three days of every
        month so you can um
        go play a little bit and explore in
        there and
        join if you’d like so
        thanks so much maria i hope everyone’s
        nervous system
        feels a little calmer today after that
        yeah thank you for the invitation
        tiffany to
        be the first of more
        cross-pollinating absolutely is cool ” …

  3. happybones
    happybones says:

    Much appreciation to Rachel for posting the link
    Bonnie Bainbridge Cohen
    Engaging Self and Other through Embodiment: A Body-Mind Centering® Approach

    Here is the text (and I plan to post a small response ..
    “Because whatever else is happening, we are
    the material. We are what we’re studying. We are
    what this is about individually and as a community.
    So what if sometimes I say
    I don’t have any support. Nobody supports me.
    But a key is that, do you remember the support that you did create
    that’s underneath all support that you can receive?
    Without remembering the support that you created, how are you going to recognize
    the support that you’re given or the kind of support that actually you need?
    At the same time, how do we support somebody that we want desperately to support
    but they don’t feel it, because they don’t feel their own that they created.
    The underlying theme of this workshop was for us to experience our own embodiment of
    self and other and of self other.
    Not just to learn about it but to jointly participate in the process.
    My vision was for each person and the group as a whole to become more aware
    of how we develop a sense of self and other as individuals,
    as individuals within a community,
    and as a community of individuals.
    The foundation of our explorations was the experiencing of the multiple aspects of self
    through remembering our embryological development.
    The integration of self and other into a unified selfother rests on the clarity of
    our mutual recognition of and respect for both a separate individuated self and a
    separate individuated other.
    In exploring this a sense of comfort and safety within the community
    needs to be established.
    To foster a safe open ground, we began each morning by creating
    space for each person to experience this process within the context of the group.
    During the classes, participants had the choice to explore the embryological material alone,
    in partners, and/or in small groups.
    Over the course of these four days,
    we gradually built and shared our sense of self and other within community.

    On Thursday, September 30, 2021, 05:53:28 p.m. PDT, Katarina Listens wrote:

    and this too thank you
    Bonnie Bainbridge Cohen

    Engaging Self and Other through Embodiment: A Body-Mind Centering® Approach

  4. happybones
    happybones says:

    // ” The body is an organism’s matter-formed-by the soul.”// Line by Line Commentary on Aristotle’s De Anima Books I and II Eugene T. Gendlin, Ph.D. University of Chicago of
    Book I, Endnote 6. On Why There Are No Pathe Peculiar to the Soul As Such page 11-12 of endnotes
    6. On Why There Are No Pathe Peculiar to the Soul As Such There are “pathe of the soul” but they are not peculiar to it (not idia pathe) because they are traits of body-and-soul. Of course the soul is affectable, but only by affecting the body. This becomes obvious if we grasp the basic notion of the soul that Aristotle is building here. The soul is the power for active functioning. Throughout his works, Aristotle defines “matter” as that, in anything, which can be affected or changed. So, of course, the matter-and-form organism can be affected only through its matter, i.e., that in it which is affectable. Affectability is what Aristotle means by “matter.” “Matter qua matter is the capacity of being affected (pathetikon)” (De Gen I-7, 324b18). The body is an organism’s matter-formed-by the soul. The functioning of the soul can be affected, for example in drunkenness or disease, but this happens by affecting the soul-and-body organism through the body. If the soul as such also had an affectability, it would have still another body. Its affectability is precisely the body. The soul is the capacity for the active functioning. So the pathe belong to the whole organism, the soul-and-body. Why can there be no pathe peculiar just to the active functioning as such? Take for example your radio. You need it to be “affected” by the incoming signal, but you need this not to affect what makes your radio work. So in one way the signal has to make a change in your radio; in another way (functionally) it must not change the radio. The radio’s functioning needs to continue unchanged. If your radio stopped working just when you were listening to a politician you despise, you might joke that he broke your radio. But you would know that its functioning is not something that can be affected as such. Only the function-matter combination
    can be affected. Once we make a separate definition for the function (even though it doesn’t exist separately), we can say as Aristotle does, that the embodied functions of the soul do not die of themselves; they die only because the living body dies. Aristotle sometimes uses the word “pathe” more widely. In II-5 Aristotle discusses the broad and narrow usage of “affected.”

  5. happybones
    happybones says:

    Sat, 2. Oct 2021 Discussion of AY#85 Bending the right ear to the right shoulder and the left ear to the left shoulder Paula Baratta reader and leading discussion relating to VESTIBULAR / BALANCE and aspects and Moshé’s lessons for Hazel, Guru, Sondra, notes to follow in replies to this poste. .

  6. happybones
    happybones says:

    Dichter on self-image, during the 1960s.
    The Century of the Self – Part 2: “The Engineering of Consent”

    19:30 minutes Dichter notes…
    “we don’t ask directly why you buy or not buy. What we try instead is to understand the total personality, the self image of the costumer, we use all resources and modern social sciences. It opens up to stimulating psychological techniques to sell any products”

    And then something about the importance of being aware, alert to the “strategy of desire”:

    “Modern man is internally ready to follow up his self-image by purchasing products which compliment it.”


    The context of the “self-image” in the American Psychological Society of ’50s 60´s even 70´ context in which Moshé started his research

  7. happybones
    happybones says:

    , MEMORY Kinaesthetic and Body Memory … discussion notes to be added … we continue keeping a look-out for a reference
    Kinaesthetic and Body Memory and Multi-Sensory Association

  8. happybones
    happybones says:

    ‘become increasingly sensitive to non-verbal expressions as beginning stirrings of
    forward-moving energy that are implying change’ –– Glenn Fleisch (2009) Right in their hands:
    How gestures imply the body’s next steps in Focusing-oriented therapy (Accepted for publication: Journal of experiential and person-centered psychotherapies)….pdf

    ‘We saw that we understand many together. Each thing which we could separate is already affected by the others that are already affected by it. This is an odd pattern, more intricate than the usual kind of ‘many’. It is also more intricate than the usual kind of ‘one’. Let us allow this more intricate pattern to stand. I name it ‘a crossing’. RATHER THAN BEING SIDE BY SIDE, each is a modification of the already-modified others. They are one understanding (IU) because of the crossing. Implicit understanding is a crossing. That is how they are able to [page 338] imply one actual next event. BECAUSE THEY ARE A CROSSING, THEY CAN CHANGE ALL AT ONCE, and without forming separately.’ (emphasis added KH) –– Eugene Gendlin (2009) What First and Third Person Processes Really Are [page 332]
    ‘TIME CAN BE VIEWED AS WITHIN HAPPENING AND GENERATED BY IT. Happening need not be within pre-given time locations. I will discuss this further below. For a full treatment see A Process Model, chap. I-B (Gendlin, 1981/1997).
    Gallagher (2006) establishes a term (‘prenoetic’) that refers to the implicit. He writes: ‘THE PRENOETIC FUNCTION OF THE BODY SCHEMA . . . [is] ordered according to the intention of the actor rather than in terms of muscles or neuronal signals. . . (p. 38)’ (emphasis added KH) –– Eugene Gendlin (2009) What First and Third Person Processes Really Are [page 332]

    Gallagher, S. (2006), How the Body Shapes the Mind (Oxford: Clarendon Press).
    ‘This book helps to formulate this common vocabulary by developing a conceptual framework that avoids both the overly reductionistic approaches that explain everything in terms of bottom-up neuronal mechanisms, and the inflationistic approaches that explain everything in terms of Cartesian, top-down cognitive states. Through discussions of neonate imitation, the Molyneux problem, gesture, self-awareness, free will, social cognition and intersubjectivity’ …. ‘the book proposes to remap the conceptual landscape by revitalizing the concepts of body image and body schema, proprioception, ecological experience, intermodal perception, and enactive concepts of ownership and agency for action. Informed by both philosophical theory and scientific evidence, it addresses two basic sets of questions that concern the structure of embodied experience. First, questions about the phenomenal aspects of that structure, specifically the relatively regular and constant phenomenal features found in the content of experience. Second, questions about aspects of the structure of consciousness that are more hidden, those that may be more difficult to get at because they happen before one knows it, and do not normally enter into the phenomenal content of experience in an explicit way.;

  9. happybones
    happybones says:

    Margaret S.Warner, Ph.D. “Fragile Process” “New Directions in Client-Centered Therapy: Practice with Difficult Client Populations”, Ed. Lois Fusek, Monograph Series 1, Chicago Counseling and Psychotherapy Center. 1991 // A highlighted version to follow with a discussion page.

  10. happybones
    happybones says:

    “In a recent article, Leonard Geller (1982) criticized the concept of self-actualization as developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow on both theoretical and empirical grounds. His critique is based upon an assumption of a psychosocial understanding of self and a linear thinking approach to the human context. In this article, it is argued that the use of the term “self” in the human potential movement is fundamentally somatic and that linear thought, as it is usually understood is inappropriate to understanding concepts such as self and autonomy as well as any living system. The roots of such a somatic understanding are explored in systems biology and the formalizations of a logic of self-reference. A development notion of self-image is then sketched based on self-distinction as the central element.” –– Carl Ginsburg Toward a Somatic Understanding of Self: A Reply to Leonard Geller Journal of Humanistic Psychology Volume 24, Issue 2 (


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